Employment
Mathematicians
hold about 2,900 jobs in the United States. Many people with
mathematical backgrounds also worked in other occupations. For example,
there were about 54,800 jobs as postsecondary mathematical science
teachers.
Many mathematicians work for the Federal Government, primarily in the
U.S. Department of Defense which accounts for about 81 percent of the
mathematicians employed by the Federal Government. Many of the other
mathematicians employed by the Federal Government work for the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) or the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA).
In the private sector,
major employers include scientific research and development services and
management, scientific, and technical consulting services. Some
mathematicians also work for software publishers, insurance companies,
and in aerospace or pharmaceutical manufacturing.
Mathematicians work in every major sector of the economy: industry,
business, government, and academia. These arenas are marked by very
definite characteristics that will be important to consider as you explore
options.
Industry
Consisting of manufacturing and consumer products companies, this sector
is typically characterized by an emphasis on the bottom line. At companies
like Boeing, Kodak, and Microsoft, mathematicians report that an
appreciation for deadlines, a multiplicity of problems to solve, and the
tangible impact of their work on a final product makes this sector
personally rewarding.
Business
Companies whose primary function is serviceoriented, like consulting or
financial analysis, fall into this sector. Business depends on profits and
thus offers a mathematician a variety of problems at a challenging pace;
however, its profitability is proportional to client satisfaction and
therefore might require additional capabilities from its employees 
strong interpersonal and communication skills foremost among them.
Government
The
federal government includes organizations as diverse as the national labs,
the Federal Reserve, and the U.S. Navy, each with disparate cultures.
Despite variance in specific agencies, government work in general is
distinguished by the necessity of operating within certain guidelines and
procedures. The pace is often quick and the problems challenging. Salary,
benefits, and promotions are likely to be dispensed in accordance with
regulations.
Titles
A title is like the
suit (or jeans, as the case may be) you wear to work. Underneath it all,
you're still you. In the nonacademic world, mathematicians wear many
different titles. They may be called Analysis Lead, Consultant, Design
Engineer, Member of Technical Staff, or Section Head, but they function as
mathematicians. Sample titles include:
Actuarial Scientist
Actuary Assistant
Air Pollution Meteorologist
Architect
Associate
Associate Consultant
Biostatistician
Business Analyst
CAD Engineer
Consultant
Contractor / Programmer
Cost Estimator
Cryptologic Mathematician
Customer Support Manager
Data Processing Consultant
Data Processing Consultant
Database Specialist
Developer
Field Inventory Asset Specialist
Financial Engineer
Intelligence Application Officer
Management Consultant
Manager of Financial Analysis
Market Strategy Analyst
Mathematical Software
Programmer / Analyst
Mathematical Statistician
Mathematician 
Media Specialist
Member of Technical Staff
Network Analyst
Operations Research Analyst
Performance Analyst
PreSales Consultant
Programmer
Project Scientist
Purchasing Agent
Research Assistant
Research Associate
Research Mathematician
Research Mathematician
Research Scientist
Research Statistician
Researcher / Software Design
Section Supervisor
Senior Consultant
Senior Engineer
Senior Structure Engineer
Software Analyst
Software Engineering Manager
Staff Mathematician
Statistician
Support Scientist
Systems Analyst
Systems Engineer
Technical Consultant
Vice President 
Motivation
You may be surprised to
find that your reasons for studying mathematics  because it is your best
subject, because you find the subject content interesting, because it is
challenging, etc.  are motivations shared by those in the field.
Specialties
Some
topics are more prevalent than others. Mathematical specialties include
Modeling and Simulation, Numerical Methods/Analysis, Statistics,
Probability, Engineering Analysis / Differential Equations, Operation
Research, and Discrete Mathematics. This graph displays the percentage of
mathematicians surveyed with Master's degrees or Ph.D.'s who mentioned
mathematical specialties as a primary technical requirement of their
positions; multiple mentions were allowed.
Note:
Some resources in this section are provided by the
American Mathematical Society,
Mathematical Association of America,
Society for Industrial and Applied
Mathematics,
and the US Department
of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

